Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Studies

1. Barrager E and Schiller R, An Open Trial Investigating the Efficacy of Cetyl-Myristoleate Complex (CMC) in the Reduction of Symptoms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis, GENESIS Center for Integrative Medicine, Graham, WA 98338.

Results of American Institute for Biosocial and Medical Research (AIBMR) study:

Thirteen pre-menopausal women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis participated in a 6-week open trial. Treatment consisted of a 4-week period in which subjects consumed 2200 mgs of powdered CM Complex (11-15% Cetyl Myristoleate) followed by a 2-week washout period. Evaluations were performed at day 1, week 4, and week 6. Treatment effectiveness was assessed with the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 (AIMS2), pain visual analogue scale, handgrip strength, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  • Left grip strength significantly improved by week-4, and remained improved at week-6
  • Right grip strength significantly improved by week-4, and continued to improve during the next 2 weeks.  t score values climbed from 2.73 to 4.28, and p values improved from <0.01 to <0.001
  • Pain Visual Analogue Scale scores significantly improved by week-4, and continued to improve during the subsequent 2 weeks.  t scores went from 2.74 to 4.53, and p values improved from <0.01 to <0.0005
  • Arthritis pain did not significantly improve by week-4, however did improve by week-6 (p<0.002)
  • The ability of subjects to complete household tasks improved significantly by week-4 (p<0.02), however this improvement was not maintained at week-6
  • Subject mood significantly improved by week-4, and remained improved at week-6
  • Both arm function and hand & finger function were not significantly improved by week-4, but significantly improved by week-6 (p<0.03 and P<0.003 respectively)

2. Diehl HW, May EL. Cetyl Myristoleate Isolated From Swiss Albino Mice: An Apparent Protective Agent Against Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats. J Pharma Sci 1994, Mar;83:296-299.

Results of Harry Diehl’s research (1962 – 1964) and the discovery of CM:

  • Mice have a natural immunity to adjuvant-induced arthritis
  • The molecule that provides this immunity is Cetyl Myristoleate
  • CM circulates in the blood stream of mice at approximately 350 mg/kg bodyweight
  • With proper doses of CM extracted from mice (450-500 mg/kg bodyweight), he could provide rats with 100% immunity to adjuvant-induced arthritis
  • After injecting the CM into the rats, the highest concentrations were found in the liver
  • Diehl developed a method of synthesizing CM by combining cetyl alcohol with myristoleic acid, and found that the synthesized form was just as effective in providing rats immunity to arthritis as the naturally occurring form.

3. Siemandi H. The effect of cis-9-myristoleate (CMO) and adjunctive therapy on arthritis and autoimmune disease-a randomized trial. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 1997; Aug/Sept: 58-63.

Results of Siemandi study:

H. Siemandi, MD, PhD performed a multi-clinic, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 382 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. Treatment consisted of a one-month protocol in which the group was divided into three groups. Group A received 90 grams of a 12% Cetyl Myristoleate liquid drink and group B received this same drink combined with sea cucumber extract, and hydrolyzed cartilage. Group C received a flavored drink with no active material (placebo). Outcome measures included a variety of patient reported, physician reported, laboratory, and radiographic assessments. Results expressed as percentage of improvement

  • Overall treatment response – group A (63.3%), group B (87.3%), and group C (14.5%)
  • Physician assessment – group A (58.1%), group B (84.2%), and group C (13.9%)
  • Patient assessment – group A (59.2%), group B (88.2%), and group C (16.1%)
  • Joint swelling – group A (47.5), group B (77.2%), and group C (21.1%)

5. AN OPPORTUNITY TO OFFER A LITTLE CLARITY IN REGARD TO CETYL MYRISTOLEATE , by Charles Cochran, D.C.

I can’t believe it, but it’s been over four years since I first wrote a small booklet entitled Dr. Chuck Cochran Discusses Arthritis & Cetyl Myristoleate. As you can imagine a lot has transpired since that time. We now have quite a few healthcare practitioners who use it regularly in their offices and it’s being sold through several nutritional lines in health food stores. Several multi-level companies now offer Cetyl Myristoleate (CM) and related products in their lines, and recently, CM was put in a formula to treat arthritis in dogs. It’s also been written about in Robert Atkins’, M.D. most recent book entitled Vita-Nutrient Solution — Nature’s Answer to Drugs. And Sherry Rogers, M.D., for her soon-to-be-completed book on chronic pain, recently interviewed me. I also had the fortunate opportunity to be interviewed by Total Health (Volume 21, No. 1). I’ve found that there’s a big difference in all of these products, however, and so I appreciate the opportunity to share some of the information that I’ve gathered since I was first introduced to this marvelous molecule.

Cetyl Myristoleate

The History

For those of you who have not heard or read about Cetyl Myristoleate, let me give you just a little background. The discovery occurred during a two-year period from 1962 to 1964 by Harry W. Diehl while on a personal quest to find a cure for arthritis. Harry was a research chemist working in sugar metabolism at the National Institutes for Health in Bethesda, Maryland. During his time there, over 40 years, he was responsible for isolating and identifying over 500 chemical compounds. Many of these were patented. His most notable discovery, prior to CM, was a sugar used in the preparation of Dr. Jonas Salk’s oral polio vaccination. His discovery of CM actually occurred in a laboratory that he had set up in his own home. The story of how he isolated the molecule that may one day be hailed as the most significant nutritional discovery of the 20th century and nature’s answer to arthritis is simply wonderful. Unfortunately, I can’t relate the entire story in this short article. Hopefully, someday someone will write the story of this very intuitive researcher. In a nutshell, this is what Harry’s research revealed:

  • Mice are immune to arthritis.
  • The molecule that provides this immunity is Cetyl Myristoleate (the cetyl alcohol ester of the fourteen carbon chain fatty acid myristoleic acid).
  • After injecting the CM into the rats, the highest concentrations were found in the liver.
  • Harry developed a way of synthesizing CM by combining cetyl alcohol with myristoleic acid and found that the synthesized form was just as effective in providing rat’s immunity to adjuvant-induced arthritis as the naturally occurring form (extracted from mice).

Subsequent Research

A more recent study, performed by H. Siemandi, M.D., Ph.D., was published in the August / September 1997 issue of the Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. This study was performed as a randomized, double blind, placebo parallel trial with 382 patients who had been diagnosed with degenerative joint disease (DJD or osteoarthritis), rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. This group was divided into three groups for testing. The first group (A) received a complex of fatty acids (90 grams) containing 12% CM, the second group (B) received the same complex of fatty acid esters plus glucosamine hydrochloride, sea cucumber (a sea animal commonly found in the Great Barrier Reef in Australia — related to the Starfish), and hydrolyzed cartilage, and the third group (C) received a placebo. Treatment consisted of a one-month protocol. Outcome measures included a variety of patient-reported, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic assessments. The results were as follows (expressed in percent improvement):

Group A Group B Group C

Treatment Response 63.3% 87.3% 14.5%

M.D. Overall Assessment 58.1% 84.2% 13.9%

Patient Overall Assessment 59.2% 88.2% 16.1%

Joint Swelling Score 47.5% 77.2% 21.1%

Mechanisms of Action and Indications

The exact mechanisms of action of CM are not fully understood. Several theories have been presented, but as of today, there has been no research in this regard. Being a fatty acid ester, one mechanism being presented is that it somehow manipulates the production of the favorable prostaglandins, (series 1 and/or 3) and leukotrienes over the unfavorable prostaglandins of the 2nd series and pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are unsaturated fatty acids that regulate many local metabolic processes including inflammation, platelet aggregation, pain, fluid balance, and nerve transmission. These effects could be accomplished by inhibition of the arachidonic acid cascade and the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. 

Another mechanism being discussed is that these fatty acid esters are somehow incorporated into the phospholipid cell membranes and alter cell membrane permeability and receptor sites. This could explain the possible theory of altering T-lymphocyte function during the hyper-immune response related to autoimmune diseases.

Although the mechanisms are unknown, we can clinically observe CM’s effects. It seems to function, in at least, four different ways. One of the first observations noted when favorable results are seen is the lubricating quality. Decrease or loss of morning stiffness is commonly noted shortly after commencing treatment. Next, it functions as an anti-inflammatory. Lessening of swollen digits is often seen after the 4th or 5th week of treatment. Third, it functions as an immunomodulator or immune system regulator. Its ability to regulate or calm down hyper-immune responses is one of the most exciting qualities and shows that CM may be helpful in addressing the symptoms related to many autoimmune diseases. And finally, CM functions as an analgesic or pain killer and has been helpful for many sufferers of muscle tension headaches and fibromyalgia. 

Recommended Dose

We have found that many of those individuals who have taken Cetyl Myristoleate (CM), and have not responded, have often taken doses far below what is recommended. Results are related to the quality of the product as well as the amount of CM taken orally (therapeutic or loading dose). If we do a little mathematics, and use the amount of CM circulating in the bloodstream of mice as a comparison (350 mg / kg), we conclude that a 160-pound person could require up to 24.5 grams. Fortunately, possibly because human and mouse metabolism differ greatly, we have found that doses of 12 grams to 18 grams of elemental CM as a therapeutic or loading dose taken over a three to four week period of time works fantastically well. However, there are those individuals that require a second protocol. And once the desired results have been achieved, there are many individuals that benefit from taking much smaller, perhaps daily, maintenance doses.

Concerning the quality, there is a wide degree of very diverse CM products available today. In fact, some of the CM formulas have no Cetyl Myristoleate in them at all! Before purchasing any of these formulas, please read the label to determine exactly how much CM is available. It is imperative that the formula contain a minimum of 12% CM levels. If the levels are below this amount, you’ll probably have to take a wheelbarrow full before seeing any results! In other words (let’s do a little math), if you’re trying to achieve a therapeutic dose of 12 grams of CM and the CM levels are at 12%, you will need a total of 100 grams of mixed fatty acid esters in this particular formula. If the CM levels are at 20%, you will need a total of only 60 grams. If the manufacturer has not listed the percentages and the total amount of fatty acid ester complex, I would be very hesitant in purchasing that particular product. Without this information, you have no way of determining how much you need to take, for how long, and what would be a good maintenance dose.

The Confusion

There are many different Cetyl Myristoleate and related products available today. There are several which, either through ignorance or unethical marketing, have contributed to extensive confusion in the nutritional and healthcare industry. There are several issues that I’d like to address in this regard. First, Cetyl Myristoleate (CM) is not CMO™. CMO™ is a trademarked product that is being sold as cerasomal cis-9 cetyl myristoleate, an analog of cetyl myristoleate. The term cerasomal (waxy body?) is not in your chemistry texts and was constructed by the manufacturer to set his product apart. The term analog is defined as a similarly structured molecule. In other words, CMO™ contains a similar molecule, but is not Cetyl Myristoleate. Chemical analysis performed on several occasions, using Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Flame Ionization Detection has revealed very little, if any, Cetyl Myristoleate in this product. Unfortunately, the manufacturer, as of today, has not disclosed exactly what his product is.

Another embarrassing mix up is that, at least, one of the manufacturers started with a raw material that contained high levels of myristic acid (C14:0) instead of myristoleic acid (C14:1). Myristic acid is the saturated analog of myristoleic acid and when esterified with cetyl alcohol produces Cetyl Myristate, not Cetyl Myristoleate. Before the sophisticated diagnostic procedures to analyze for CM were developed, many of these products were analyzed using improper or inadequate methods. These products are now on our health food store shelves and in the MLM industry being sold as Cetyl Myristoleate, but in fact are Cetyl Myristate. Interestingly, there have been many who have experienced benefits from these Cetyl Myristate products. And I have found that, in one particular formula, the Cetyl Myristate seems to enhance the effectiveness of the Cetyl Myristoleate. They may form a true synergism.

And, finally, all CM products are not created equally. Chemical analysis of several different products has revealed that the CM levels range from 1% up to 40%. And to add to the confusion, I have found products that contain lower percentages of CM (20% – 30%) that seem to work better than the CM products with higher levels. Please note that there are no CM products today that are 100% pure. With all of these products you will find a complex of other fatty acid esters, for example cetyl stearate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl palmitoleate, cetyl oleate, and cetyl myristate, in different proportions. What we’re now finding is that some of these fatty acid esters may inhibit the positive effects of the CM, while others work with the CM, as I mentioned above, in a cooperative way. 

For those of you technical individuals out there, Gas Chromatography — Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID) analysis is now considered one of the most accurate techniques for detecting these fatty acid esters. Here’s something that you may also find interesting. Further analysis of the product used by Dr. Siemandi in his study showed that it actually contained 10.8 grams of CM, and not 18 grams, as stated in his report. And one very current analysis of this same material indicated that the CM levels could have been only 9 grams delivered in a one- month protocol. It’s truly amazing what results were achieved with only 9 or 10 grams of active ingredient!

 

And for those of you who are suffering with any types of aches or pains, you and Cetyl Myristoleate deserve to get to know each other! God speed on your road to health! 

Dr. Chuck Cochran

7. Cetyl-myristoleate: Remarkable relief from pain and inflammation, by Marcia Zimmerman, Nature's Impact, 09/30/1998 

A lot of us are hurting! 

Thirty-eight million Americans suffer from some form of connective tissue disease, encompassing 100 specific disorders of the joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The most common are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, and various types of back pain. These are all considered "rheumatic" conditions. However, others that do not involve the joints are also considered rheumatic: lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, Sjogren's syndrome, and polymyalgia rheumatica. 

The costs are staggering 

Treating rheumatic disorders costs an astounding $65 billion each year, according to the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. The distribution of costs among the disorders is uneven. The Massachusetts Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) estimates costs are four times greater for rheumatoid arthritis than for osteoarthritis, which is much more common. Treatment for a rheumatoid arthritis patient runs $2,162 per year, while osteoarthritis treatment costs $543. Most of the costs are for prescription drugs. 

Is the treatment worse than the illness? 

Current drug treatment for arthritis is potent and has numerous side effects. Since all rheumatic disorders involve pain and inflammation, treatment strategy is usually geared to reducing pain first, then delaying treatment for inflammation as long as possible. That is because these conditions never heal and treatment must be continued throughout life. Besides that, significant side effects are associated with even the most innocuous remedies, such as aspirin or acetaminophen. 

Nevertheless, arthritis sufferers experience so much discomfort that they are often willing to suffer the consequences of pain relief. What are these consequences? Acetaminophen can cause liver damage, and aspirin can cause extreme irritation to the stomach. Occurrence of side effects depends on how much is taken, over what period of time, and an individual's susceptibility to problems. 

Other treatments for advanced arthritis involve the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, corticosteroids, and cyclosporin. Corticosteroids (prednisone) cause severe side effects. Cyclosporin, a neurotoxin, can diminish cognitive function and nerve responsiveness. Methotrexate has been found to suppress bone marrow function and cause severe liver damage in some cases. Folic acid and vitamin B (12) supplements help guard against these side effects, yet physicians often specifically prohibit their use. 

Wouldn't it be exciting if there were a treatment for rheumatic conditions that was effective, could heal the condition, cost very little, and came from natural sources? 

The promise of cetyl-myristoleate 

Cetyl-myristoleate is a naturally ring waxy alcohol. It was accidentally discovered during the 1970's by a chemist named Harry Diehl at the National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland. Diehl had been working for years with a particular strain of white mice that never got arthritis, even when purposely exposed to it. The mice had such a bad reputation among investigators that they carefully avoided using them whenever they wanted to study arthritis. 

Diehl was curious about why this type of mouse was so resistant to arthritis. Consequently, he looked for the chemical in the mouse's body that gave it immunity from the disease. After considerable trial and error, he isolated cetyl-myristoleate. When he injected the substance into mice and rats that were susceptible to arthritis, the compound prevented them from developing this condition. 

Diehl continued his research with animal studies. He successfully synthesized the compound from beef fat, which worked as effectively as the mouse extract. He was awarded a U.S. Patent (#4,049,824) September 20, 1977, for his discovery. 

Dramatic results 

The secret might have never gotten out if Diehl himself hadn't developed severe osteoarthritis. Faced with a future of heavy medication, constant pain, and immobility, he decided to inject himself with some of his cetyl-myristoleate preparation. To his amazement, his pain disappeared almost immediately. The swelling in his joints decreased and his mobility increased dramatically. Without further injections, he continued to improve. In a matter of weeks, he could hardly believe he had ever had arthritis. Furthermore, his arthritis never returned and he had absolutely no side effects. 

Following the surprising results of his self experimentation, Diehl applied for and was awarded U.S. Patent (#5,569,676) in October 29, 1996, for use of cetyl-myristoleate in the treatment of osteoarthritis. 

The word gets out 

His physician was so impressed that he urged Diehl to publish his findings. With the doctor's help, Diehl's paper was published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences in March 1994. 

The evidence 

Humberto Siemandi, M.D., Ph.D., the primary research administrator at the Hospital SM in Baja, California, conducted a 32-week multi-center trial with 106 patients. The trial was double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. In other words, patients were randomly assigned to receive any of three preparations for 30 days: plain cetyl-myristoleate; cetyl-myristoleate enhanced with glucosamine hydrochloride, sea cucumber, and hydrolyzed cartilage; or a non-reactive compound. Approximately 20-percent of the patients withdrew from the study because they could not handle the withdrawal from nicotine, caffeine, or alcohol. These substances interfere with the action of cetyl-myristoleate and were not allowed during the trial. 

The results strongly suggest that both cetyl-myristoleate alone and cetyl-myristoleate with supporting nutrients may help treat many forms of arthritis-based diseases, including psoriatic arthritis. Most of the patients responded with one treatment course, but a few required a second course to achieve complete and lasting results. Many of the patients included in the trial had long-standing chronic conditions. 

L.S. Macklas, Ph.D., conducted a second clinical trial involving 48 subjects. The group represented a cross-section of ethnic and socioeconomic groups, and included 28 female participants between the ages of 33 and 82, and 20 males aged 28 to 74. All patients had either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects received two 75-mg capsules of cetyl-myristoleate each morning and each evening for four to six days for symptoms that were mild-to-moderately severe. Those with severe-to-crippling arthritis were given the same number of capsules for seven days, followed by a seven-day, treatment-free period. A second trial of five-and-a-half days followed. All the patients showed improvement after just three days. They continued to improve, even if their condition was mild enough to not require additional capsules (see table on page 32). 

Personal stories 

Many anecdotal reports of cetyl-myristoleate's effectiveness have come across my desk. They come from physicians who have been impressed with the results their patients have received. Among them are patients like Anna: She not only experienced continued relief for her arthritis, but her asthma also improved. Another patient named Luke was suffering from emphysema as well as rheumatoid arthritis. Both conditions improved after he took two courses of treatment with cetyl-myristoleate. 

Rick took an aggressive treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. His protocol included cetyl-myristoleate, vitamin C, curcumin, lipoic acid, and a low-calorie, high-protein diet. He wrote in a consumer response questionnaire: "The overall effect was extremely positive — complete remission of all symptoms and indications." He added that he experienced improvement in five days, and continued toward maximum improvement of 90 percent in just 10 days. Rick is monitoring his status now and checking for recurrence. Although many patients have remained symptom-free, some need additional treatments periodically. 

Safety 

Cetyl-myristoleate is extremely safe, does not interfere with other nutrients, and even large doses — up to several grams per trial — usually cause no problem. Some patients have reported mild stomach upset. However, this can usually be avoided by taking digestive enzymes with the capsules. Others have reported some fatigue, but this may be due to the abrupt discontinuation of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. 

What exactly is cetyl-myristoleate? 

Cetyl-myristoleate is a waxy substance derived from the tallow of beef. It is similar in structure and activity to fatty acids. Although we don't know exactly how cetyl-myristoleate works, it is believed to act on memory T-cells in the immune system; i.e., it may "re-program" them so they do not attack one's own connective tissues. That is why it is so effective for autoimmune disorders, or those in which the body attacks itself. However, as I discussed above, several disorders that do not necessarily involve joints are rheumatic in nature. All these disorders cause pain, inflammation, and swelling. Cetyl-myristoleate can help relieve all these errant immune responses. 

Dietary changes 

You guessed it! For a natural treatment to work, you need to modify your diet. Cetyl-myristoleate can be difficult to absorb, and it is important to avoid foods that might interfere with it. As I mentioned above, you must avoid caffeine, chocolate, alcohol, and nicotine. Additionally, large amounts of competing fats, such as butter, margarine, and oils, should be restricted or eliminated. 

At this time, cetyl-myristoleate is not widely available in health or natural food stores. 

  • Conditions that cetyl-myristoleate may benefit:
  • Rheumatoid arthritis 
  • Emphysema 
  • Osteoarthritis 
  • Lupus erythematosus 
  • Gout 
  • Crohn's disease 
  • Fibromyalgia 
  • Sjogren's syndrome 
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome 
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica 
  • Ankylosing spondylitis 
  • Back pain 

8. Double-Blinded Evidence Supports Cetyl Myristoleate, by Steve Austin, Quarterly Review of Natural Medicine, 12-31-1997, p. 315-316

Interest in 9-cis-cetyl myristoleate (CMO) a fatty acid apparently found in mice — and in a species known for immunity from arthritis — has been intense at least since Dr. Jonathan Wright interviewed the discoverer, Harry Diehl, in Nutrition and Healing over a year ago. (1) Until recently, animal data provided by Diehl(2) were supported only by anecdotes in humans.(3) 

For several months, the text of a double-blinded randomized trial with CMO executed by Humberto Siemandi, a medical doctor from Mexico has been circulating in the world of natural medicine. The full text was recently published in the Townsend Letter.(4) Whether the author of that report has any vested interest in "CM Plus" or other CMO products produced by Draco International was not clear from the Townsend Letter report. 

In that report, placebo or 90 grams of oil containing 18 g of CMO was administered over the course of one month, with or without the addition of glucosamine HCl, sea cucumber, and cartilage, for "a total dosage of 18 grams each of these nutrients." Apparently this means 600 mg of each ingredient per day. Topical CMO was also applied as 60 cc of 25% solution — again, this appears to have been the total dose for the month. ("CM Plus" contains all four ingredients; the same supplier sells topical CMO as a separate product.) The follow-up appears to have been done in eight week cycles. 

The daily dose of glucosamine sulfate used in virtually all previous research is 2.5 times the amount of glucosamine HCl used in this trial. Moreover, The HCl version has not yet been tested; making its inclusion and the dose selected for it both poor choices for a multi-agent trial. Almost certainly, the 600 mg per day of cartilage is too low a dose to affect humans. Doctors of natural medicine generally use higher amounts if they use cartilage at all. The optimal amount of sea cucumber remain a matter of conjecture, but the support for this product in the treatment of rheumatoid arthiritis (RA) is weak enough to have made its inclusion in the protocol a potential mistake. 

Although the study is labeled "multicentric," it has only one author. Nonetheless, the large number of subjects (N = 382 completed the study) appears to support this claim. Most patients had RA, though a few had psoriatic arthritis. Tobacco and caffeine were discouraged for participants in all groups. The placebo contained salicylates or ibuprofen as excipients — a questionable choice that could have worked against an anticipated positive effect for CMO. 

Among those receiving all interventions, 88% reported subjective improvement compared with 59% for CMO alone and 16% for placebo. The overall assessments by attending medical doctors were similar. Moreover, a treatment response was seen in 87% of those taking all interventions vs. 63% receiving only CMO and 14.5% on placebo. These results were highly statistically significant.

(1) Wright JV. Searching for a cure for arthritis. Nutr Healing 1996; Aug:5-6. 

(2) Diehl HW, May EL. Cetyl myristoleate isolated from Swiss albino mice: an apparent protective agent against adjuvant arthritis in rats. J Pharmaceutical Sci 1994; 83:296-9. 

(3) Cochran C, Dent R. Cetyl myristoleate — a unique natural compound valuable in arthritis conditions. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 1997; July:70-74. 

(4) Siemandi H. The effect of cis-9-myristoleate (CMO) and adjunctive therapy on arthritis and autoimmune disease — a randomized trial. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients 1997; Aug/Sept: 58-63. 

Article copyright Natural Product Research Consultants, Inc.

Other CM/CMO Research and References

1. Diehl, Harry, and E.L. May, "Cetyl Myristoleate Isolated from Swiss Albino Mice: An Apparent Protective Agent against Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 83, No. 3, March, 1994. 

2.Siemandi, H., MD., et al. "The Effect of cis-9-Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) and Adjunctive Therapy on the Course of Arthritic Episodes in Patients with Various Auto-Immune Diseases Characterized by the Common Terminology, 'Arthritis' and 'Psoriasis': A Randomized Clinical Trial."

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